12 Months Name in English and Hindi: Gregorian and Panchanga Calendars

The 12 months in the Gregorian calendar are January to December. In the Panchanga calendar, they are Chaitra to Phalguna.

The Gregorian calendar, widely used globally, names its months as January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December. The Panchanga calendar, primarily used in Hindu culture, has its months named as Chaitra, Vaisakha, Jyeshtha, Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashwin, Kartika, Margashirsha, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna.

Understanding these different calendar systems helps in appreciating the cultural diversity and traditions associated with each. This knowledge is useful for those interested in global cultures, religious practices, and historical timelines.

Introduction To The Gregorian Calendar

The Gregorian Calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in October 1582. This calendar system is used for civil purposes around the globe.

Origins And Global Adoption

The Gregorian Calendar was created to reform the Julian Calendar. The Julian Calendar had a small error that caused the calendar dates to drift over time. Pope Gregory XIII aimed to correct this drift.

The reform included removing 10 days from the calendar. This adjustment realigned the calendar with the equinox. Many countries adopted the Gregorian Calendar quickly. Some countries took centuries to make the switch.

Today, almost all countries use the Gregorian Calendar. It is the standard for international business and communication.

Calendar Structure And Time Measurement

The Gregorian Calendar is a solar calendar. It is based on the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The year is divided into 12 months.

Month Days
January 31
February 28/29
March 31
April 30
May 31
June 30
July 31
August 31
September 30
October 31
November 30
December 31

A common year has 365 days. A leap year occurs every four years and has 366 days. February has 29 days in a leap year.

The Gregorian Calendar uses the 7-day week structure. Sunday is the first day of the week in many cultures. Monday is the first day in other cultures.

Each day is divided into 24 hours. Each hour has 60 minutes. Each minute has 60 seconds. This structure helps in precise time measurement.

Names Of The Months In English

The names of the months in English have fascinating histories. Each month has a unique origin story. These names have been used for centuries.

Historical Significance

Many month names come from Roman times. For example, July is named after Julius Caesar. August honors Augustus Caesar. Some months have names related to numbers.

September means the seventh month in Latin. October means the eighth month. These names reflect the old Roman calendar. This calendar had ten months.

Linguistic Roots

The linguistic roots of month names are diverse. January comes from Janus, the Roman god of doors and gates. March is named after Mars, the Roman god of war.

June honors Juno, the Roman goddess of marriage. May is named after Maia, a Greek goddess of growth. These names show a mix of Roman and Greek influences.

Month Origin
January Janus, Roman god
February Februa, a Roman festival
March Mars, Roman god
April Aperire, Latin for “to open”
May Maia, Greek goddess
June Juno, Roman goddess
July Julius Caesar
August Augustus Caesar
September Septem, Latin for “seven”
October Octo, Latin for “eight”
November Novem, Latin for “nine”
December Decem, Latin for “ten”

Names Of The Months In Hindi

Understanding the names of the months in Hindi connects us to rich cultural heritage. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars have unique month names in Hindi.

Cultural Connection

Month names in Hindi reflect India’s rich traditions. They carry significant cultural meanings.

In the Panchanga calendar, each month name signifies a seasonal change. It also marks various festivals and rituals.

Sanskrit Influence

The names of months in Hindi are deeply influenced by Sanskrit. Many month names are derived from ancient Sanskrit words.

This connection to Sanskrit gives these names a timeless quality. It also helps preserve India’s linguistic heritage.

English Month Hindi Month (Gregorian) Hindi Month (Panchanga)
January जनवरी (Janavari) पौष (Paush)
February फ़रवरी (Pharavari) माघ (Magh)
March मार्च (Maarc) फाल्गुन (Phalgun)
April अप्रैल (Aprail) चैत्र (Chaitra)
May मई (Mai) वैशाख (Vaishakh)
June जून (Joon) ज्येष्ठ (Jyeshtha)
July जुलाई (Julai) आषाढ़ (Aashaadh)
August अगस्त (Agast) श्रावण (Shravan)
September सितंबर (Sitambar) भाद्रपद (Bhadrapad)
October अक्टूबर (Aktubar) आश्विन (Ashwin)
November नवंबर (Navambar) कार्तिक (Kartika)
December दिसंबर (Disambar) मार्गशीर्ष (Margashirsha)

January Or जनवरी: A Fresh Start

The month of January in the Gregorian calendar marks a new beginning. It’s a time when people set new goals and resolutions. In the Hindi language, January is called जनवरी. This month holds a special place in both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars.

Roman God Janus

The name January comes from the Roman god Janus. Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings. He is often depicted with two faces, one looking to the past and the other to the future. This symbolizes looking back at the past year and looking forward to the new one.

Hindi Cultural Celebrations

In India, January or जनवरी is a month of cultural celebrations. One of the most significant festivals is Makar Sankranti. This festival marks the transition of the sun into the zodiac sign of Capricorn. It’s celebrated with kite flying, feasts, and bonfires.

Another important event is Republic Day on January 26. This day commemorates the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The celebrations include a grand parade in New Delhi, showcasing India’s cultural diversity and military strength.

Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
January जनवरी

In both calendars, January or जनवरी signifies a time of new beginnings and cultural richness. It’s a month filled with hope, celebrations, and a fresh start.

February Or फ़रवरी: Month Of Purification

February, known as फ़रवरी in Hindi, is the second month of the Gregorian calendar. It is often associated with the idea of purification and renewal. This month has rich cultural and historical significance in both Western and Indian traditions.

Februa Festival

In ancient Rome, February was dedicated to the Februa Festival. This festival was a time for cleansing and purification. Romans would conduct various rites to cleanse their homes and themselves. The name “February” itself comes from the Latin word “Februum,” meaning purification.

The Februalia festival was held in honor of the god Februus. This god was associated with purification. Romans believed that performing these rites would bring good fortune in the upcoming year. It was a way to start anew and leave behind the past year’s troubles.

Hindi Rites Of Spring

In India, February marks the transition from winter to spring. This time is celebrated with various Hindi Rites of Spring. One of the most notable festivals is Vasant Panchami. This festival is dedicated to Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge and arts. People wear yellow clothes, offer prayers, and celebrate with music and dance.

Another important celebration in February is Maha Shivaratri. This festival is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Devotees fast and offer prayers throughout the night. It is believed that observing Maha Shivaratri with devotion brings prosperity and happiness.

Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
February Magha-Phalguna
Festivals Vasant Panchami, Maha Shivaratri

The table above shows the alignment of February in the Gregorian calendar with months in the Panchanga calendar.

  • February is a month of purification in Roman tradition.
  • Februa Festival involved rituals for cleansing and renewal.
  • In India, Vasant Panchami marks the start of spring.
  • Maha Shivaratri is observed with fasting and prayers to Lord Shiva.

March Or मार्च: Change Of Seasons

The month of March, known as मार्च in Hindi, marks a significant transition in both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars. This period signifies the end of winter and the beginning of spring, a time for renewal and new beginnings.

In the Gregorian calendar, March is the third month of the year. In the Panchanga calendar, it corresponds to the lunar months of Phalguna and Chaitra.

March is a month of celebrations and cultural significance. Let’s explore its various aspects.

Mars The War God

The name March is derived from Mars, the Roman god of war. In ancient Rome, March was a time to prepare for military campaigns after the long winter.

In astrology, Mars symbolizes energy, courage, and action. These qualities are often associated with the awakening of nature in spring.

Holi Festival Significance

In the Panchanga calendar, March is the month of Holi, the festival of colors. Holi marks the end of winter and the arrival of spring.

Holi is celebrated with great enthusiasm across India. People throw colored powders, dance, and enjoy festive foods.

Holi also signifies the victory of good over evil. It commemorates the story of Prahlad and Holika.

Aspect Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
Month Name March Phalguna/Chaitra
Significant Festival St. Patrick’s Day Holi
Season Spring Spring

March is a dynamic month filled with transformations. It bridges the cold of winter and the warmth of spring, bringing renewed energy and joy.

April Or अप्रैल: Blooming Nature

April, known as अप्रैल in Hindi, is a month where nature blooms in its full glory. Spring is in the air, and flowers are in full bloom. This month symbolizes new beginnings and growth. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga Calendars highlight April as a time of celebration and renewal.

Aphrodite’s Month

In the Gregorian Calendar, April is named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty. This is why April often represents beauty and renewal. Many cultures celebrate love and beauty during this month.

People often associate April with new beginnings and fresh starts. In ancient times, they held festivals to honor Aphrodite during April. These celebrations often included music, dance, and feasts.

Baisakhi Harvest Festival

In the Panchanga Calendar, April is marked by the Baisakhi Harvest Festival. This festival is significant in Northern India, especially in Punjab.

Baisakhi, also known as Vaisakhi, marks the start of the harvest season. Farmers celebrate their hard work and the abundance of crops. The festival includes dancing, singing, and feasting.

Below is a table comparing the significance of April in both calendars:

Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
Named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty Baisakhi Harvest Festival
Symbolizes new beginnings and beauty Marks the start of the harvest season
Celebrations include music, dance, and feasts Includes dancing, singing, and feasting

April, or अप्रैल, is a month that brings joy and renewal in both the Gregorian and Panchanga Calendars. It is a time when nature flourishes, and people come together to celebrate.

May Or मई: Spring’s Pinnacle

May, or मई in Hindi, is a month that marks the peak of spring. This month is celebrated with various cultural and religious festivities. In both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars, May holds significant importance. The lush greenery and blooming flowers make it a picturesque time of the year. Let’s delve into some fascinating aspects of May.

Goddess Maia

The name May is derived from Goddess Maia. In Roman mythology, Maia is the goddess of spring and growth. She symbolizes fertility and earth’s renewal. Her influence can be seen in the vibrant nature of May.

In Hindu tradition, this month is also auspicious. Many festivals are held to honor the earth and its bounty. The warm weather and blooming flora reflect Maia’s essence. Nature is at its most beautiful during this time.

Buddha Purnima Observance

Buddha Purnima is one of the most significant observances in May. This day commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of Gautama Buddha. It usually falls on the full moon day of May.

In Hindi, it is called बुद्ध पूर्णिमा. Devotees visit temples, offer prayers, and engage in charitable activities. It is a day of reflection and spiritual growth. The teachings of Buddha resonate deeply with many.

Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
May Vaishakha/Jyestha

May or मई is a month filled with vibrant energy. Whether you follow the Gregorian or Panchanga calendar, this month is special. It is a time to celebrate growth, spirituality, and nature’s beauty.

June Or जून: Midyear Transition

June marks a significant transition in the year. It is the midpoint in the Gregorian calendar. In the Panchanga calendar, June or जून has its own special importance.

This month is filled with various rituals and traditions. Let’s dive into the details of June or जून, understanding its significance in both calendars.

Juno’s Month

June is named after Juno, the Roman goddess. She is the goddess of marriage and childbirth. This month is often associated with weddings and fertility.

Juno was an important deity for the Romans. She symbolized protection and guidance. Celebrations in her honor were common in ancient Rome during June.

In the Gregorian calendar, June is the sixth month. It comes after May and before July. It is a time of warmth and longer days in the Northern Hemisphere.

Hindi Rituals And Traditions

In the Panchanga calendar, June is known as जून. This month holds various significant events and festivals.

Many Hindi rituals take place in June. These include religious ceremonies and cultural festivals. Farmers also prepare for the monsoon season.

One key festival in June is the Vat Savitri Vrat. Married women fast and pray for their husband’s well-being. They tie a sacred thread around a banyan tree.

Another important event is the Ganga Dussehra. It celebrates the descent of the Ganges River to Earth. Devotees take a holy dip in the river.

June is also the time for the Jagannath Rath Yatra. This grand procession features Lord Jagannath’s chariot journey. It attracts millions of devotees.

Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
June जून
Named after Juno Vat Savitri Vrat
Summer Solstice Ganga Dussehra
Midyear Transition Jagannath Rath Yatra

June or जून is a month of transition and celebration. It holds special significance in both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars. Understanding its importance can enrich our appreciation of this midyear month.

Months Name in English and Hindi

July Or जुलाई: Summer’s Zenith

July, known as जुलाई in Hindi, marks the peak of summer. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars recognize its significance. This month holds historical, cultural, and meteorological importance. Let’s explore what makes July or जुलाई so special.

Julius Caesar’s Influence

July derives its name from Julius Caesar. He reformed the Roman calendar, leading to the Julian calendar. The seventh month was named in his honor. His impact is still felt today.

Here is a quick comparison of July in both calendars:

Calendar Month Name Details
Gregorian July Named after Julius Caesar
Panchanga आषाढ़ / Ashadha – श्रावण / Shravana Varies based on lunar cycles

Rainy Season In Hindi Culture

In the Panchanga calendar, July spans आषाढ़ (Ashadha) and श्रावण (Shravana). These months are associated with the monsoon. Rain transforms the landscape and impacts daily life.

  • आषाढ़ (Ashadha): Known for the onset of rains.
  • श्रावण (Shravana): Marked by heavy rainfall and festivals.

The rainy season, or मानसून (Monsoon), is crucial in Hindi culture. It influences agriculture and traditions.

During July or जुलाई, people celebrate various festivals. These celebrations honor the rain and nature’s bounty.

Key festivals in July include:

  1. Guru Purnima: Honors teachers and gurus.
  2. Hariyali Teej: Celebrates greenery and marital bliss.

July or जुलाई signifies more than just a month. It brings historical, cultural, and natural significance to life.

August Or अगस्त: The Grand Harvest

August, or अगस्त in Hindi, is a month of abundance and celebration. Known for its rich harvests, it marks a time of prosperity. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars highlight significant events in August. The month is named after the Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. In India, it is celebrated with festivals like Raksha Bandhan and Janmashtami.

Augustus Caesar’s Legacy

August is named after Augustus Caesar, the first Roman Emperor. He brought peace and prosperity to Rome. This month was originally called Sextilis in the Roman calendar. It was renamed to honor Augustus Caesar. His reign saw many achievements and reforms.

Raksha Bandhan & Janmashtami

August is also known for Raksha Bandhan and Janmashtami. Raksha Bandhan celebrates the bond between brothers and sisters. Sisters tie a protective thread, or rakhi, around their brothers’ wrists. Brothers give gifts and promise to protect their sisters.

Janmashtami marks the birth of Lord Krishna. It is celebrated with great joy and devotion. Devotees fast, sing hymns, and decorate temples. The celebration includes reenactments of Krishna’s life and midnight prayers.

Months Name in English and Hindi

September Or सितंबर: Autumn’s Arrival

As the month of September, also known as सितंबर in Hindi, arrives, the world begins to embrace the beauty of Autumn. This month marks the transition from the warmth of summer to the coolness of fall. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars recognize September as a significant month filled with cultural and seasonal importance.

Seventh Month Origins

In the Gregorian calendar, September is the ninth month of the year. But its name has roots in the Latin word “septem,” meaning seven. This is because September was the seventh month in the ancient Roman calendar, which began in March.

On the other hand, in the Panchanga calendar, September aligns with the months of Bhadrapada and Ashwin. These months are significant for various religious festivals and rituals in India.

Ganesh Chaturthi Celebrations

Ganesh Chaturthi, a beloved Hindu festival, often falls in September. It celebrates the birth of Lord Ganesha, the god of wisdom and prosperity. The festivities last for ten days, filled with joy, devotion, and vibrant decorations.

During this period, devotees bring home clay idols of Ganesha, perform prayers, and offer sweets like modak. Public pandals (temporary stages) are set up, where large idols are displayed for communal worship. On the final day, the idols are taken in a grand procession for immersion in water bodies, symbolizing Ganesha’s return to his celestial abode.

Here is a table summarizing the key points about September:

Aspect Details
Gregorian Calendar Ninth month, named from Latin “septem” (seven)
Panchanga Calendar Aligns with Bhadrapada and Ashwin
Key Festival Ganesh Chaturthi

September in both calendars signifies a season of change and celebration. It brings a sense of renewal and reverence, making it a special time of the year.

October Or अक्टूबर: Fall’s Full Glory

October, or अक्टूबर in Hindi, is a month that showcases the full beauty of fall. In the Gregorian calendar, October is the tenth month. In the Panchanga calendar, it is known as अश्विन and कार्तिक. This month is filled with vibrant colors, cooler weather, and festive celebrations. It is a time when nature prepares for winter, and people engage in various cultural and religious activities.

Roman Calendar Roots

The name October originates from the Latin word octo, meaning eight. In the ancient Roman calendar, October was the eighth month. This was before January and February were added to the calendar. The Gregorian calendar later positioned October as the tenth month. Despite the shift, the name October remained unchanged.

Navaratri And Dussehra Festivities

In the Panchanga calendar, October corresponds to the months of अश्विन (Ashwin) and कार्तिक (Kartik). This period is significant for Hindu festivals. One of the major festivals is Navaratri, a nine-night celebration dedicated to Goddess Durga. Each night, devotees participate in traditional dances, prayers, and fasting.

Following Navaratri is Dussehra, also known as Vijayadashami. This festival marks the victory of good over evil. It commemorates the triumph of Lord Rama over the demon king Ravana. Dussehra is celebrated with grand processions, enactments of the Ramayana, and the burning of effigies of Ravana.

Month Gregorian Calendar Panchanga Calendar
October Tenth Month अश्विन / कार्तिक

October or अक्टूबर bridges two important months in the Panchanga calendar. It brings together the beauty of nature and the richness of cultural festivities. The colors of fall and the joyful celebrations make this month a time of happiness and reflection.

November Or नवंबर: Pre-winter Chill

As the year draws to a close, November brings a unique blend of cultures and traditions. Known as नवंबर in Hindi, this month marks the transition from autumn to winter. The days get shorter, and the chill in the air becomes more noticeable. Let’s explore the significance of November in both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars.

Ninth Month Heritage

In the Gregorian calendar, November is the eleventh month of the year. But in the ancient Roman calendar, it was the ninth month. This heritage is reflected in its name, derived from the Latin word “novem” meaning nine.

In the Panchanga calendar, November aligns with Kartik and Margashirsha months. These months are important for various festivals and rituals. People perform religious ceremonies and celebrate the change in seasons.

Diwali: Festival Of Lights

One of the most significant festivals in November is Diwali. Known as the Festival of Lights, Diwali is celebrated with great enthusiasm. Homes are decorated with oil lamps and colorful rangolis.

Families come together to exchange gifts and enjoy feasts. Fireworks light up the night sky, symbolizing the victory of light over darkness. Diwali usually falls in the month of Kartik in the Panchanga calendar.

Calendar Month Significance
Gregorian November Eleventh month of the year
Panchanga Kartik / Margashirsha Months for festivals and rituals

November or नवंबर is a month that beautifully blends cultural heritage with the joys of the festive season. Whether you’re celebrating Diwali or simply enjoying the pre-winter chill, this month has something special for everyone.

December Or दिसंबर: Year’s End

As the year winds down, December or दिसंबर brings a sense of closure and reflection. This month is significant in both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars. In the Gregorian calendar, December is the twelfth and final month. In the Panchanga calendar, it aligns with the month of Margashirsha or Agrahayana. Both calendars mark this time as a period of festivities and traditions.

Winter Solstice Connection

The winter solstice occurs in December. This event marks the shortest day and the longest night of the year. The solstice usually falls on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Panchanga calendar, this period is known as Uttarayana, signifying the sun’s northward journey. People celebrate this astronomical event with various rituals and festivals.

Christmas And New Year In Hindi Traditions

December is synonymous with Christmas and New Year celebrations worldwide. In India, these festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm, blending local customs with global traditions. Christmas, known as क्रिसमस in Hindi, sees people decorating trees, exchanging gifts, and attending church services. New Year, or नववर्ष, is marked by parties, fireworks, and family gatherings.

Festival Hindi Name Traditions
Christmas क्रिसमस Decorating trees, exchanging gifts, attending church services
New Year नववर्ष Parties, fireworks, family gatherings

In addition to global traditions, Hindi traditions include specific rituals and customs. For instance, people often clean their homes and cook special dishes. They also visit temples to seek blessings for the coming year. The blend of global and local traditions makes December a unique month in the Indian context.

Conclusion: Calendar As A Cultural Mirror

Calendars are more than tools for tracking days. They reflect our culture, values, and traditions. Both the Gregorian and Panchanga calendars tell stories of time, culture, and belief. This section explores how calendars blend ancient traditions with modern life.

Synthesis Of Timekeeping

The Gregorian and Panchanga calendars serve different purposes. The Gregorian calendar is used globally for business and daily activities. The Panchanga calendar is used in India for festivals and religious events. Both calendars merge historical knowledge with practical needs.

Calendar Purpose Usage
Gregorian Business, daily activities Worldwide
Panchanga Festivals, religious events India

Enduring Traditions And Modern Perspectives

Calendars preserve traditions while adapting to modern life. The Gregorian calendar aligns with global business and communication. The Panchanga calendar continues to guide cultural and religious practices in India.

Both calendars teach us to value both past and present. They remind us of our roots and help us navigate the future. The Gregorian and Panchanga calendars will keep evolving, yet their cultural significance remains.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are The 12 Months Of Panchang?

The 12 months of Panchang are Chaitra, Vaishakha, Jyeshtha, Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashwin, Kartika, Margashirsha, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna.

What Are The 12 Hindu Months Called?

The 12 Hindu months are Chaitra, Vaisakha, Jyaistha, Asadha, Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina, Kartika, Margasirsa, Pausa, Magha, and Phalguna.

What Are The Names Of The Months In Hindi According To Hindu Calendar?

The months in the Hindu calendar are Chaitra, Vaishakha, Jyeshtha, Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashwin, Kartika, Margashirsha, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna.

What Are The Names Of The 12 Months Of The Year?

The 12 months of the year are January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December.


Understanding the names of months in both English and Hindi enriches our cultural knowledge. The Gregorian and Panchanga calendars offer unique perspectives. Embrace this dual knowledge to better appreciate timekeeping traditions. Stay curious and keep exploring these fascinating systems. This insight bridges cultural gaps and enhances global awareness.

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